What is Clipping?
Lets Talk About Clipping . . .
This is when an amplifier has reached its maximum output capacity yet tries to keep up with the input signal gain ratio between the signal source "HU" and Amp. The amp hits an imaginary wall whereby the output signal is no longer a symetrical replication of the input signal. The wave form in, does not match the wave form out in shape or amplitude. (you can see this easily if you had a A/B channel oscilloscope; channel A connected to the amp input, channel B to amp output) The only difference you should see between channel A & B are signal amplitude values. If the signal shape varies considerably in channel B, you have a problem with clipping.
So.. what's wrong with this picture? The amp tries to put out the appropriate power, but runs out of voltage from the supply rails and we get a flat spot at the upper and lower peaks of the wave form. In an extreme case, "severe clipping", there is so much additional energy buildup (heat) into the voice coil(s), but the cone does not move (motivate) enough to cool the voice coil and former adequately. Hense, the voice coil over heats and either seizes in the gap or burns the voice coil windings. RESULT: OPEN CIRCUIT and a blown speaker!
OK, what happens to the speakers when they are underpowered? Under normal listening conditions... NOTHING! There is adequate signal voltage from the amplifier to motivate the speaker. This moves the speaker cone and draws/expells air to cool the voice coil adequately. No problems here... just modest output from the speaker. This happens all the time when we ride with the tunes playing low enough to hear our buddy in the co-pilot seat chattering on his/her cell phone.
SO WE CAN USE LOW POWER SAFELY ON SPEAKERS?
Yes... When we use a small amp to drive a high powered speaker, the speaker can take all the "clean power" the amp can deliver and more. But it's when we push the amplifer into high distortion ("clipping") mode, the speaker cannot move (motivate) in and out adequately to cool the voice coil. Eventually, this will even fry a very expensive speaker in this manner.
WELL THEN WISE GUY... WHAT CAUSES THIS "CLIPPING" THING?
Glad you asked! The amp will try to meet the power demand placed upon it, but it cannot exceed its design capabilities. This in turn, produces the deadly "square wave" output to the speaker. The speaker sees this severely clipped signal as something similar to DC current. Speakers cannot deal well with DC inputs. The cone goes in or out and stays there. No motivation to cool the voilce coil and sooner or later, the speaker will fail.
YEAH... YEAH... SO WHAT CAN I DO TO PREVENT THIS?
Alright, we know what clipping is, how it affects amps and speakers. What do we do to keep this problem from destroying our expensive drivers? Easy deal:
1. Use amps that closely match or modestly exceed the power rating of the speaker. A 100 watt speaker will love getting 125 watts of "clean power" vs a 100 watt speaker getting 25 watts of badly clipped (distorted) power.
2. Know what distortion sounds like and prevent it by proper amp setup procedures. (HU/amp gain matching, limited bass boost usage)
3. If you are not sure your system is clipping, best thing to do is get out
of the vehicle, open the doors and step to the rear of the vehicle about 10 feet and listen...
a. Are the highs and mids clear and natural sounding or harsh, shrill and very poor SQ? You are clipping the amp if you hear the latter!
b. Does the bass sound full, tight, have a definite thump and smooth transitions from one note to another? If not, good chance the sub amp is clipping or your enclosure design is not optimal for the subs.